Optical, chemical, and biological oceanographic conditions on the Scotian Shelf and in the eastern Gulf of Maine in 2014

Optical, chemical, and biological oceanographic conditions on the Scotian Shelf and in the eastern Gulf of Maine in 2014 This entry provides access to the figures and data tables that feature in the CSAS Research Document titled 'Optical, chemical, and biological oceanographic conditions on the Scotian Shelf and in the eastern Gulf of Maine in 2014'. Please consult the meta-data text file that accompanies the zip file download for the figure on the data usage policy and appropriate citation. The meta-data file also provides field descriptors and any other information that may be useful in interpreting the data provided in relation to the accompanying imagery. Abstract: The Atlantic Zone Monitoring Program (AZMP) derives its information on the marine environment and ecosystem from data collected at a network of sampling locations (fixed point, high frequency sampling stations, cross-shelf sections, ecosystem trawl surveys) in each Fisheries and Oceans Canada region (DFO; Québec, Gulf, Maritimes, and Newfoundland) sampled at a frequency of twice-monthly to once annually. This report provides an assessment of the distribution and variability of nutrients and plankton on the Scotian Shelf and in the eastern Gulf of Maine, focusing on conditions in 2014. Surface and deep ocean temperatures were warmer than average overall in the DFO Maritimes Region in 2014, especially in the slope waters and western Scotian Shelf in the second half of the year. Stratification was higher than average at an annual scale, but stratification anomalies were variable at sub-annual scales at the fixed stations and deep mixing events were observed at Halifax-2 in late winter and spring. Although annual average anomalies of surface- and deep-layer nitrate were near normal in most areas, there was substantial sub-annual variability in nitrate anomalies, particularly for deep-layer nitrate at Halifax-2. Scotian Shelf spring phytoplankton bloom magnitudes observed by remote sensing were low, while summer-fall blooms were higher than average in several areas. Spring blooms at the fixed stations were unusually deep, and therefore their magnitude would not have been accurately represented in satellite ocean colour observations. Both zooplankton biomass and Calanus finmarchicus abundance were lower than average overall in 2014. The abundance of Arctic Calanus species, an indicator of cold water on the Scotian Shelf, was lower than average in 2014, while the abundance of warm offshore species was higher than average on the central and western Scotian Shelf. Higher than average occurrence of thaliaceans (mainly salps) was observed, perhaps related to strong sub-annual variability. Ocean conditions in the DFO Maritimes Region have been characterized by strong sub-annual and mesoscale variability in 2013 and 2014, in addition to warmer temperatures, and interannual variability has been strong during the AZMP period since 1999. It is important to evaluate not only how the ecosystem responds to changes in mean conditions but also the response to changes in sub-annual to interannual variability. Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) sampling showed that in 2013 abundances of Calanus I-IV and C. finmarchicus V-VI returned to normal or relatively high levels from the historically low levels seen in 2012 across the Scotian Shelf. C. glacialis, C. hyperboreus and Oithona spp. were at near normal levels shelf-wide. Anomalies for three indices of phytoplankton abundance were below or close to normal on the Eastern Scotian Shelf (ESS) but above or close to normal on the Western Scotian Shelf (WSS). Many zooplankton taxa also exhibited contrasting patterns for the annual average abundance on the ESS versus the WSS. http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas-sccs/Publications/ResDocs-DocRech/2016/2016_003-eng.html 2017-12-12 Fisheries and Oceans Canada catherine.johnson@dfo-mpo.gc.ca Form DescriptorsNature and EnvironmentScience and TechnologyPlanktonChlorophyllNutrientsEarth sciencesOceanographyWaterEnvironmental sciencesSalt waterCoastal watersOceansMarine biology Fig 06 : Mixing properties at the fixed stationsZIP http://www.meds-sdmm.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/isdm-gdsi/azmp-pmza/document-data-donnees-documents/data/CSAS_2016_003_fig_6.zip Fig 07 : Optical properties at the fixed stationsZIP http://www.meds-sdmm.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/isdm-gdsi/azmp-pmza/document-data-donnees-documents/data/CSAS_2016_003_fig_7.zip Fig 09 : Nitrate inventories at the fixed stationsZIP http://www.meds-sdmm.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/isdm-gdsi/azmp-pmza/document-data-donnees-documents/data/CSAS_2016_003_fig_9.zip Fig 10 : Maritimes region chemical and biological environment anomaly scorecardZIP http://www.meds-sdmm.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/isdm-gdsi/azmp-pmza/document-data-donnees-documents/data/CSAS_2016_003_fig_10.zip Fig 14 : Chlorophyll inventories at the fixed stationsZIP http://www.meds-sdmm.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/isdm-gdsi/azmp-pmza/document-data-donnees-documents/data/CSAS_2016_003_fig_14.zip Fig 15 : Microplankton abundance and community composition at the fixed stationsZIP http://www.meds-sdmm.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/isdm-gdsi/azmp-pmza/document-data-donnees-documents/data/CSAS_2016_003_fig_15.zip Fig 17 : Zooplankton biomass at the fixed stationsZIP http://www.meds-sdmm.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/isdm-gdsi/azmp-pmza/document-data-donnees-documents/data/CSAS_2016_003_fig_17.zip Fig 18 : Zooplankton abundance and community composition at the fixed stationsZIP http://www.meds-sdmm.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/isdm-gdsi/azmp-pmza/document-data-donnees-documents/data/CSAS_2016_003_fig_18.zip Fig 19 : Calanus finmarchicus abundance and stage distribution at the fixed stationsZIP http://www.meds-sdmm.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/isdm-gdsi/azmp-pmza/document-data-donnees-documents/data/CSAS_2016_003_fig_19.zip Fig 20 : Dominant copepods abundanceZIP http://www.meds-sdmm.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/isdm-gdsi/azmp-pmza/document-data-donnees-documents/data/CSAS_2016_003_fig_20.zip Fig 21 : Zooplankton biomass - AZMP sectionsZIP http://www.meds-sdmm.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/isdm-gdsi/azmp-pmza/document-data-donnees-documents/data/CSAS_2016_003_fig_21.zip Fig 22 : Zooplankton biomass - Ecosystem trawl surveysZIP http://www.meds-sdmm.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/isdm-gdsi/azmp-pmza/document-data-donnees-documents/data/CSAS_2016_003_fig_22.zip Fig 23 : Calanus finmarchicus abundance - AZMP sectionsZIP http://www.meds-sdmm.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/isdm-gdsi/azmp-pmza/document-data-donnees-documents/data/CSAS_2016_003_fig_23.zip Fig 24 : Calanus finmarchicus abundance - Ecosystem trawl surveysZIP http://www.meds-sdmm.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/isdm-gdsi/azmp-pmza/document-data-donnees-documents/data/CSAS_2016_003_fig_24.zip Fig 25 : Immigrant copepods groups abundance anomaly scorecardZIP http://www.meds-sdmm.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/isdm-gdsi/azmp-pmza/document-data-donnees-documents/data/CSAS_2016_003_fig_25.zip

This entry provides access to the figures and data tables that feature in the CSAS Research Document titled 'Optical, chemical, and biological oceanographic conditions on the Scotian Shelf and in the eastern Gulf of Maine in 2014'. Please consult the meta-data text file that accompanies the zip file download for the figure on the data usage policy and appropriate citation. The meta-data file also provides field descriptors and any other information that may be useful in interpreting the data provided in relation to the accompanying imagery. Abstract: The Atlantic Zone Monitoring Program (AZMP) derives its information on the marine environment and ecosystem from data collected at a network of sampling locations (fixed point, high frequency sampling stations, cross-shelf sections, ecosystem trawl surveys) in each Fisheries and Oceans Canada region (DFO; Québec, Gulf, Maritimes, and Newfoundland) sampled at a frequency of twice-monthly to once annually. This report provides an assessment of the distribution and variability of nutrients and plankton on the Scotian Shelf and in the eastern Gulf of Maine, focusing on conditions in 2014. Surface and deep ocean temperatures were warmer than average overall in the DFO Maritimes Region in 2014, especially in the slope waters and western Scotian Shelf in the second half of the year. Stratification was higher than average at an annual scale, but stratification anomalies were variable at sub-annual scales at the fixed stations and deep mixing events were observed at Halifax-2 in late winter and spring. Although annual average anomalies of surface- and deep-layer nitrate were near normal in most areas, there was substantial sub-annual variability in nitrate anomalies, particularly for deep-layer nitrate at Halifax-2. Scotian Shelf spring phytoplankton bloom magnitudes observed by remote sensing were low, while summer-fall blooms were higher than average in several areas. Spring blooms at the fixed stations were unusually deep, and therefore their magnitude would not have been accurately represented in satellite ocean colour observations. Both zooplankton biomass and Calanus finmarchicus abundance were lower than average overall in 2014. The abundance of Arctic Calanus species, an indicator of cold water on the Scotian Shelf, was lower than average in 2014, while the abundance of warm offshore species was higher than average on the central and western Scotian Shelf. Higher than average occurrence of thaliaceans (mainly salps) was observed, perhaps related to strong sub-annual variability. Ocean conditions in the DFO Maritimes Region have been characterized by strong sub-annual and mesoscale variability in 2013 and 2014, in addition to warmer temperatures, and interannual variability has been strong during the AZMP period since 1999. It is important to evaluate not only how the ecosystem responds to changes in mean conditions but also the response to changes in sub-annual to interannual variability. Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) sampling showed that in 2013 abundances of Calanus I-IV and C. finmarchicus V-VI returned to normal or relatively high levels from the historically low levels seen in 2012 across the Scotian Shelf. C. glacialis, C. hyperboreus and Oithona spp. were at near normal levels shelf-wide. Anomalies for three indices of phytoplankton abundance were below or close to normal on the Eastern Scotian Shelf (ESS) but above or close to normal on the Western Scotian Shelf (WSS). Many zooplankton taxa also exhibited contrasting patterns for the annual average abundance on the ESS versus the WSS. http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas-sccs/Publications/ResDocs-DocRech/2016/2016_003-eng.html

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City: Dartmouth

Administrative Area: Nova Scotia

Country: Canada

Electronic Mail Address: catherine.johnson@dfo-mpo.gc.ca

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