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  • Open Data

    Permafrost

    Permafrost occurs when the ground remains at or below a temperature of 0oC for a minimum period of two years. Permafrost occurs not only at high latitudes but also at high altitudes. Almost all of the soil moisture in permafrost occurs in the form of ground ice, which in turn occurs in several...
    Organization:
    Natural Resources Canada
    Resource Formats:
    • JP2
    • ZIP
    • other
  • Open Data

    Permafrost, Glaciers and Sea Ice (Nunavut)

    Nunavut’s cold climate makes it a territory consisting of mostly barren land and permafrost. Permafrost is soil or rocks whose temperature remains at or below the freezing point for a long period of time. Glaciers, a mass of snow and ice that does not melt from year to year prevail in the...
    Organization:
    Natural Resources Canada
    Resource Formats:
    • JP2
    • ZIP
    • other
  • Open Data

    Distribution of Freshwater - Groundwater

    Groundwater is water found beneath the earth’s surface and located at the water table below. In Canada, there is more water underground than on the surface. Groundwater occurs in the tiny spaces between loose materials on top of bedrock, or in cracks of bedrock. The most important concentrations...
    Organization:
    Natural Resources Canada
    Resource Formats:
    • JP2
    • ZIP
    • other
  • Open Data

    Distribution of Freshwater - Wetlands

    Wetlands are lands permanently or temporarily submerged or permeated by water, and characterized by plants adapted to saturated-soil conditions. Wetlands are the only ecosystem designated for conservation by international convention because they absorb the impact of hydrologic events, filter...
    Organization:
    Natural Resources Canada
    Resource Formats:
    • JP2
    • ZIP
    • other
  • Open Data

    Distribution of Freshwater - Drainage Patterns

    A drainage basin is an area that drains all precipitation received as a runoff or base flow (groundwater sources) into a particular river or set of rivers. Canada’s major drainage regions are the Atlantic Ocean, Hudson Bay, Arctic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico. A lake can be defined as...
    Organization:
    Natural Resources Canada
    Resource Formats:
    • JP2
    • ZIP
    • other
  • Open Data

    Distribution of Freshwater - Glaciers and Icefields

    Glaciers and icefields are huge masses of ice, formed on land by the compaction and re-crystallization of snow, that move very slowly down slopes, or move outward due to their own weight. In Canada, an estimated area of 200 000 square kilometres, or about 2% of the country’s area is covered by...
    Organization:
    Natural Resources Canada
    Resource Formats:
    • JP2
    • ZIP
    • other
  • Open Data

    Land Cover (generalized)

    This map shows a simplified distribution of land cover types across Canada interpreted from satellite data obtained in 1995. Land cover has an important role in the water cycle as it significantly affects evapotranspiration and the amount of water leaving a watershed. Evapotranspiration is the...
    Organization:
    Natural Resources Canada
    Resource Formats:
    • JP2
    • ZIP
    • other
  • Open Data

    Threats to Ecosystems - Population Variation by Ecoprovince, 1971 to 1996

    The higher the concentration of people in an ecoprovince, the higher the chance of loss of habitat and species. To better evaluate and minimize population impacts on the environment, it is necessary to study the distribution and variation of population within ecological areas. The map shows the...
    Organization:
    Natural Resources Canada
    Resource Formats:
    • JP2
    • ZIP
    • other
  • Open Data

    Land Cover

    This map shows the distribution of land cover types across Canada, based on satellite data obtained in 1995. The land cover map contains 31 classes: 12 forest; 3 shrubland; 7 tundra/grasslands; 7 developed land types including cropland, mosaic and built-up areas; and 2 water cover types.
    Organization:
    Natural Resources Canada
    Resource Formats:
    • JP2
    • ZIP
    • other
  • Open Data

    Surficial Materials (Nunavut)

    Surficial Materials are unconsolidated earth deposits of various origins. This map shows the distribution of surficial materials in Nunavut, on land and in extensive offshore areas.
    Organization:
    Natural Resources Canada
    Resource Formats:
    • JP2
    • ZIP
    • other
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