The Historic treaties (formerly known as the Pre-1975 treaties) dataset contains geographic boundaries as well as basic attribute data representing signed treaties that were negotiated between Indigenous peoples and the Crown between 1725 and 1929. However, the Treaties of Peace and Neutrality, signed between 1701 and 1760, are not represented in this dataset because they do not have geographic boundaries that can be represented on a map.
Apart from the Peace and Friendship Treaties, these boundaries represent the historic treaties signed after 1763, which provided large areas of First Nations land, to the Crown (transferring their Aboriginal title to the Crown) in exchange for reserve lands and other benefits. The Government of Canada recognizes 70 historic treaties in Canada signed between 1701 and 1923. These treaties include:
• Treaties of Peace and Neutrality (1701-1760)
• Peace and Friendship Treaties (1725-1779)
• Upper Canada Land Surrenders and the Williams Treaties (1764-1862/1923)
• Robinson Treaties and Douglas Treaties (1850-1854)
• The Numbered Treaties (1871-1921)
These boundaries are usually not surveyed but help to delineate the broad area described within the treaty. The boundaries are composed of the sum of specific geographies such as lakes, rivers, townships, mountains, administrative boundaries or height of land as mentioned in the treaties transcript. These boundaries are estimated based on written descriptions and should be used for informational and representational purposes only. If there is no geographic description included in the treaty, illustrative polygons may be used to represent locations where the signatory nations, as modern-day collectives, assert and/or exercise Section 35 rights.
For more information about Historic treaties, visit https://www.rcaanc-cirnac.gc.ca/eng/1100100028574/1529354437231#chp3.
The Historic treaties dataset is one of multiple datasets representing treaties and agreements between the Crown and Indigenous peoples. The Crown-Indigenous treaties and agreements geospatial datasets represent the geographic boundaries of the solemn agreements between the Crown and Indigenous peoples that set out promises, obligations and benefits for parties. The following datasets are also available:
1) The Modern treaties (formerly known as the Post-1975 treaties) dataset, which represents the areas of Canada where Indigenous land rights and title have not been addressed by preceding treaties or through other legal means.
2) The Indigenous agreements dataset, which represents established protocols in place for consultation processes, self-government agreements, and other signed agreements between Indigenous groups and the Crown which do not fall into the aforementioned categories.
The Historic treaties dataset is Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada (CIRNAC) and Indigenous Services Canada (ISC)’s primary source for Historic treaties geographic boundaries on maps.
This dataset can also be viewed in the Aboriginal and Treaty Rights Information System (ATRIS). This web-based system provides access to information to inform governments, industry and other interested parties in determining their consultation obligations and in carrying out their consultation research.
For more information, visit https://www.rcaanc-cirnac.gc.ca/eng/1100100014686/1609421785838.
- Publisher - Current Organization Name: Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada
- Licence: Open Government Licence - Canada
Data and Resources
Historic TreatiesWMSEnglish web_service WMS
Generate KML fileKMLEnglish dataset KML
Generate KML fileKMLFrench dataset KML
Web Feature Service (WFS)WFSFrench web_service WFS
Historic TreatiesWMSFrench web_service WMS
Web Feature Service (WFS)WFSEnglish web_service WFS
Pre-packaged FGDB fileFGDB/GDBEnglish French dataset FGDB/GDB
Pre-packaged SHP fileSHPEnglish French dataset SHP
Pre-packaged CSV fileCSVEnglish French dataset CSV
Data Dictionary - Web Services (in French)CSVFrench guide CSV
Data Dictionary - Web Services (in English)CSVEnglish guide CSV
Data Dictionary - FGDB (in French)CSVFrench guide CSV
Data Dictionary - FGDB (in English)CSVEnglish guide CSV
Data Dictionary - SHP (in French)CSVFrench guide CSV
Data Dictionary - SHP (in English)CSVEnglish guide CSV
Data Dictionary - CSV (in French)CSVFrench guide CSV
Data Dictionary - CSV (in English)CSVEnglish guide CSV
Historic TreatiesESRI RESTFrench web_service ESRI REST
Historic TreatiesESRI RESTEnglish web_service ESRI REST
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