Historic treaties

Historic treaties The Historic treaties (formerly known as the Pre-1975 treaties) dataset contains geographic boundaries as well as basic attribute data representing signed treaties that were negotiated between Indigenous peoples and the Crown between 1725 and 1929. However, the Treaties of Peace and Neutrality, signed between 1701 and 1760, are not represented in this dataset because they do not have geographic boundaries that can be represented on a map. Apart from the Peace and Friendship Treaties, these boundaries represent the historic treaties signed after 1763, which provided large areas of First Nations land, to the Crown (transferring their Aboriginal title to the Crown) in exchange for reserve lands and other benefits. The Government of Canada recognizes 70 historic treaties in Canada signed between 1701 and 1923. These treaties include: • Treaties of Peace and Neutrality (1701-1760) • Peace and Friendship Treaties (1725-1779) • Upper Canada Land Surrenders and the Williams Treaties (1764-1862/1923) • Robinson Treaties and Douglas Treaties (1850-1854) • The Numbered Treaties (1871-1921) These boundaries are usually not surveyed but help to delineate the broad area described within the treaty. The boundaries are composed of the sum of specific geographies such as lakes, rivers, townships, mountains, administrative boundaries or height of land as mentioned in the treaties transcript. These boundaries are estimated based on written descriptions and should be used for informational and representational purposes only. If there is no geographic description included in the treaty, illustrative polygons may be used to represent locations where the signatory nations, as modern-day collectives, assert and/or exercise Section 35 rights. For more information about Historic treaties, visit https://www.rcaanc-cirnac.gc.ca/eng/1100100028574/1529354437231#chp3. The Historic treaties dataset is one of multiple datasets representing treaties and agreements between the Crown and Indigenous peoples. The Crown-Indigenous treaties and agreements geospatial datasets represent the geographic boundaries of the solemn agreements between the Crown and Indigenous peoples that set out promises, obligations and benefits for parties. The following datasets are also available: 1) The Modern treaties (formerly known as the Post-1975 treaties) dataset, which represents the areas of Canada where Indigenous land rights and title have not been addressed by preceding treaties or through other legal means. 2) The Indigenous agreements dataset, which represents established protocols in place for consultation processes, self-government agreements, and other signed agreements between Indigenous groups and the Crown which do not fall into the aforementioned categories. The Historic treaties dataset is Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada (CIRNAC) and Indigenous Services Canada (ISC)’s primary source for Historic treaties geographic boundaries on maps. This dataset can also be viewed in the Aboriginal and Treaty Rights Information System (ATRIS). This web-based system provides access to information to inform governments, industry and other interested parties in determining their consultation obligations and in carrying out their consultation research. For more information, visit https://www.rcaanc-cirnac.gc.ca/eng/1100100014686/1609421785838. 2022-05-06 Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada aadnc.infopubs.aandc@canada.ca Form DescriptorsGovernment and PoliticsComprehensive Land ClaimSettlement LandsSelf-GovernmentPre-1975Post-1975AboriginalSelf-determinationIndigenous rightsIndigenous landsAgreementsIndigenous peoplesBoundariesIndians Historic TreatiesWMS https://data.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/geomatics/services/Donnees_Ouvertes-Open_Data/Historic_Treaty_E/MapServer/WMSServer?request=GetCapabilities&service=WMS&version=1.3.0&layers=1&legend_format=image%2Fpng&feature_info_type=text%2Fhtml Generate KML fileKML https://data.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/geomatics/rest/services/Donnees_Ouvertes-Open_Data/Historic_Treaty_E/MapServer/GenerateKML Generate KML fileKML https://data.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/geomatics/rest/services/Donnees_Ouvertes-Open_Data/Historic_Treaty_F/MapServer/GenerateKML Web Feature Service (WFS)WFS https://data.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/geomatics/services/Donnees_Ouvertes-Open_Data/Historic_Treaty_F/MapServer/WFSServer?request=GetCapabilities&service=WFS Historic TreatiesWMS https://data.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/geomatics/services/Donnees_Ouvertes-Open_Data/Historic_Treaty_F/MapServer/WMSServer?request=GetCapabilities&service=WMS&version=1.3.0&layers=1&legend_format=image%2Fpng&feature_info_type=text%2Fhtml Web Feature Service (WFS)WFS https://data.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/geomatics/services/Donnees_Ouvertes-Open_Data/Historic_Treaty_E/MapServer/WFSServer?request=GetCapabilities&service=WFS Pre-packaged FGDB fileFGDB/GDB https://data.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/geomatics/directories/output/DonneesOuvertes_OpenData/Traite_historique_Historic_Treaty/Traite_historique_Historic_Treaty_FGDB.zip Pre-packaged SHP fileSHP https://data.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/geomatics/directories/output/DonneesOuvertes_OpenData/Traite_historique_Historic_Treaty/Traite_historique_Historic_Treaty_SHP.zip Pre-packaged CSV fileCSV https://data.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/geomatics/directories/output/DonneesOuvertes_OpenData/Traite_historique_Historic_Treaty/Traite_historique_Historic_Treaty_CSV.zip Data Dictionary - Web Services (in French)CSV https://data.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/geomatics/directories/output/DonneesOuvertes_OpenData/Traite_historique_Historic_Treaty/Reference/Traite_historique_Dictionnaire_de_donnees_SERVICES.csv Data Dictionary - Web Services (in English)CSV https://data.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/geomatics/directories/output/DonneesOuvertes_OpenData/Traite_historique_Historic_Treaty/Reference/Historic_Treaty_Data_Dictionary_SERVICES.csv Data Dictionary - FGDB (in French)CSV https://data.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/geomatics/directories/output/DonneesOuvertes_OpenData/Traite_historique_Historic_Treaty/Reference/Traite_historique_Dictionnaire_de_donnees_FGDB.csv Data Dictionary - FGDB (in English)CSV https://data.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/geomatics/directories/output/DonneesOuvertes_OpenData/Traite_historique_Historic_Treaty/Reference/Historic_Treaty_Data_Dictionary_FGDB.csv Data Dictionary - SHP (in French)CSV https://data.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/geomatics/directories/output/DonneesOuvertes_OpenData/Traite_historique_Historic_Treaty/Reference/Traite_historique_Dictionnaire_de_donnees_SHP.csv Data Dictionary - SHP (in English)CSV https://data.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/geomatics/directories/output/DonneesOuvertes_OpenData/Traite_historique_Historic_Treaty/Reference/Historic_Treaty_Data_Dictionary_SHP.csv Data Dictionary - CSV (in French)CSV https://data.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/geomatics/directories/output/DonneesOuvertes_OpenData/Traite_historique_Historic_Treaty/Reference/Traite_historique_Dictionnaire_de_donnees_CSV.csv Data Dictionary - CSV (in English)CSV https://data.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/geomatics/directories/output/DonneesOuvertes_OpenData/Traite_historique_Historic_Treaty/Reference/Historic_Treaty_Data_Dictionary_CSV.csv Historic TreatiesESRI REST https://data.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/geomatics/rest/services/Donnees_Ouvertes-Open_Data/Historic_Treaty_F/MapServer Historic TreatiesESRI REST https://data.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/geomatics/rest/services/Donnees_Ouvertes-Open_Data/Historic_Treaty_E/MapServer

The Historic treaties (formerly known as the Pre-1975 treaties) dataset contains geographic boundaries as well as basic attribute data representing signed treaties that were negotiated between Indigenous peoples and the Crown between 1725 and 1929. However, the Treaties of Peace and Neutrality, signed between 1701 and 1760, are not represented in this dataset because they do not have geographic boundaries that can be represented on a map.

Apart from the Peace and Friendship Treaties, these boundaries represent the historic treaties signed after 1763, which provided large areas of First Nations land, to the Crown (transferring their Aboriginal title to the Crown) in exchange for reserve lands and other benefits. The Government of Canada recognizes 70 historic treaties in Canada signed between 1701 and 1923. These treaties include:

• Treaties of Peace and Neutrality (1701-1760)

• Peace and Friendship Treaties (1725-1779)

• Upper Canada Land Surrenders and the Williams Treaties (1764-1862/1923)

• Robinson Treaties and Douglas Treaties (1850-1854)

• The Numbered Treaties (1871-1921)

These boundaries are usually not surveyed but help to delineate the broad area described within the treaty. The boundaries are composed of the sum of specific geographies such as lakes, rivers, townships, mountains, administrative boundaries or height of land as mentioned in the treaties transcript. These boundaries are estimated based on written descriptions and should be used for informational and representational purposes only. If there is no geographic description included in the treaty, illustrative polygons may be used to represent locations where the signatory nations, as modern-day collectives, assert and/or exercise Section 35 rights.

For more information about Historic treaties, visit https://www.rcaanc-cirnac.gc.ca/eng/1100100028574/1529354437231#chp3.

The Historic treaties dataset is one of multiple datasets representing treaties and agreements between the Crown and Indigenous peoples. The Crown-Indigenous treaties and agreements geospatial datasets represent the geographic boundaries of the solemn agreements between the Crown and Indigenous peoples that set out promises, obligations and benefits for parties. The following datasets are also available:

1) The Modern treaties (formerly known as the Post-1975 treaties) dataset, which represents the areas of Canada where Indigenous land rights and title have not been addressed by preceding treaties or through other legal means.

2) The Indigenous agreements dataset, which represents established protocols in place for consultation processes, self-government agreements, and other signed agreements between Indigenous groups and the Crown which do not fall into the aforementioned categories.

The Historic treaties dataset is Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada (CIRNAC) and Indigenous Services Canada (ISC)’s primary source for Historic treaties geographic boundaries on maps.

This dataset can also be viewed in the Aboriginal and Treaty Rights Information System (ATRIS). This web-based system provides access to information to inform governments, industry and other interested parties in determining their consultation obligations and in carrying out their consultation research.

For more information, visit https://www.rcaanc-cirnac.gc.ca/eng/1100100014686/1609421785838.

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Data and Resources

Geographic Information

Spatial Feature

Contact Information

Delivery Point: Terrasses de la Chaudière, 10 Wellington, North Tower

City: Gatineau

Administrative Area: Quebec

Postal Code: K1A 0H4

Country: Canada

Electronic Mail Address: aadnc.infopubs.aandc@canada.ca

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