Lake Study: Turkey Lakes Watershed Study

Lake Study: Turkey Lakes Watershed Study The Turkey Lakes Watershed (TLW) is 1 of 5 hydrologically "calibrated" basins in eastern Canada that were originally devoted to process-oriented research into "acid rain" effects. They were selected to cover a wide range of climatic and hydrological conditions, deposition magnitudes, and terrain characteristics. Batchawana Lake is the headwater (highest elevation) lake in the TLW. It has two distinct basins, north and south (L1 and L2). Norberg Creek flows out of Batchawana Lake South and traverses a large change in elevation (497-388 meters above mean sea level) prior to entering Wishart Lake (L3). Norberg Creek then continues through Little Turkey Lake (L4) and Turkey Lake (L5) and finally discharges into the Batchawana River and ultimately Lake Superior. The data associated to this page are separated into archival data from 1980 to 2006, and then current data from 2006 to current. Supplemental Information The lakes range from 5.9 hectares (Batchawana North), 5.8 hectares (Batchawana South), 19.2 hectares (Wishart), 19.2 hectares (Little Turkey), to 52 hectares (Turkey) in area, and from 4.5 m (Wishart), 10.9 m (Batchawana South), 11.3 m, (Batchawana North), 13 m (Little Turkey) to 37 m (Turkey) in depth. Stations for monitoring chemical and physical characteristics are situated at the deepest point in each lake. The coordinates of each lake are: L1 - 47°04'00.6"N, 84°23'36.4"W L2 - 47°03'50.7"N, 84°23'30.0"W L3 - 47°03'01.2"N, 84°24'00.3"W L4 - 47°02'35.3"N, 84°24'28.8"W L5 - 47°02'55.9"N, 84°25'21.2"W The lakes are considered "dimictic" (i.e. experiencing complete mixing of the water column in spring and autumn), although spring mixing is sometimes incomplete. Thermal stratification develops in Batchawana, Little Turkey and Turkey Lakes during summer and winter each year. Due to Wishart Lake's shallow nature, wind-induced mixing generally prevents thermal stratification. The sediments and undisturbed bottom waters of the lakes exert a dissolved oxygen (DO) demand resulting in reduced bottom water DO during periods of thermal stratification and even anoxia in the case of Batchawana and Little Turkey Lakes. There is a gradient in the pH and major element chemistry of the lakes. Thin soils devoid of calcium carbonate dominate higher elevations in the TLW while lower elevations have thicker soils with a small amount of calcium carbonate. As a result, waters draining into and out of Batchawana Lake have calcium and alkalinity concentrations that are approximately half those observed in Turkey Lake. Alkalinity is a measure of a lake's ability to neutralize acid. Hence Batchawana Lake is more sensitive to the effects of acid rain than Turkey Lake. In contrast to calcium and alkalinity, sulphate concentrations (an indicator of acid rain input) are almost equal in Batchawana Lake and Turkey Lake. Lake water phosphorus concentrations are low (6-8 mg/L), and as is the case with most lakes, phosphorus availability limits algal growth in the TLW. Nitrogen varies irregularly between lakes, but concentrations (particularly nitrate) exhibit a pronounced annual cycle. The seasonal pattern observed for nitrate indicates that nitrogen-based acidification is more important in the TLW than in any of the other sites in eastern Canada (Lac Laflamme, Plastic, ELA and Kejimkujik). The Climate Change and Air Pollution (CCAP) program was established in 2016 to identify the severity and extent of adverse impacts of current and future air emissions on aquatic ecosystems to support regulatory actions and policy development. The program includes a number of components, including identifying, monitoring and defining air quality and greenhouse gas (GHG) concerns; improving our understanding of the short- and long-term effects of atmospheric pollutants on the environment; developing a plan to combat climate change; and monitoring and reducing both domestic and transboundary emissions of GHGs. The program is also responsible for identifying and studying emerging issues including multipollutant impacts, major urban sources, and effects of increasing heat on air pollutant formation, among others. On-going cooperation and support with the Provinces and Territories, international governments and organizations and academia are vital to deliver these priorities to Canadians. 2021-07-30 Environment and Climate Change Canada open-ouvert@tbs-sct.gc.ca Nature and Environmentacid rainwatershed basinhydrologylakesmajor ionsnutrientsmetalstemperaturedissolved oxygenlong term monitoringwatershedinland watersOntariowater qualityCCAPclimate change and air pollutionClimate ChangeAcid rainWatershedsWater qualityClimate change L1-BatchawanaLakeNorth-TurkeyLakesWatershedStudy-chemistryWater-EN-FR.csvCSV https://data-donnees.ec.gc.ca/data/substances/monitor/the-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/lake-study-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/L1-BatchawanaLakeNorth-TurkeyLakesWatershedStudy-chemistryWater-EN-FR.csv L2-BatchawanaLakeSouth-TurkeyLakesWatershedStudy-chemistryWater-EN-FR.csvCSV https://data-donnees.ec.gc.ca/data/substances/monitor/the-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/lake-study-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/L2-BatchawanaLakeSouth-TurkeyLakesWatershedStudy-chemistryWater-EN-FR.csv L3-WishartLake-TurkeyLakesWatershedStudy-chemistryWater-EN-FR.csvCSV https://data-donnees.ec.gc.ca/data/substances/monitor/the-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/lake-study-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/L3-WishartLake-TurkeyLakesWatershedStudy-chemistryWater-EN-FR.csv L4-LittleTurkeyLake-TurkeyLakesWatershedStudy-chemistryWater-EN-FR.csvCSV https://data-donnees.ec.gc.ca/data/substances/monitor/the-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/lake-study-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/L4-LittleTurkeyLake-TurkeyLakesWatershedStudy-chemistryWater-EN-FR.csv L5-TurkeyLake-TurkeyLakesWatershedStudy-chemistryWater-EN-FR.csvCSV https://data-donnees.ec.gc.ca/data/substances/monitor/the-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/lake-study-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/L5-TurkeyLake-TurkeyLakesWatershedStudy-chemistryWater-EN-FR.csv BatchawanaLake-L1-L2-Bathymetry.pdfPDF https://data-donnees.ec.gc.ca/data/substances/monitor/the-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/lake-study-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/BatchawanaLake-L1-L2-Bathymetry.pdf WishartLake-L3-Bathymetry.pdfPDF https://data-donnees.ec.gc.ca/data/substances/monitor/the-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/lake-study-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/WishartLake-L3-Bathymetry.pdf LittleTurkeyLake-L4-Bathymetry.pdfPDF https://data-donnees.ec.gc.ca/data/substances/monitor/the-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/lake-study-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/LittleTurkeyLake-L4-Bathymetry.pdf TurkeyLake-L5-Bathymetry.pdfPDF https://data-donnees.ec.gc.ca/data/substances/monitor/the-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/lake-study-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/TurkeyLake-L5-Bathymetry.pdf Turkey Lakes watershed Study: Lakes [Français]HTML https://www.canada.ca/fr/environnement-changement-climatique/services/etude-bassin-lacs-turkey/site/lacs.html Turkey Lakes watershed Study: Lakes [English]HTML https://www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change/services/turkey-lakes-watershed-study/site/lakes.html View ECCC Data Mart (English)HTML https://data-donnees.ec.gc.ca/data/substances/monitor/the-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/lake-study-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/ View ECCC Data Mart (French)HTML https://data-donnees.ec.gc.ca/data/substances/monitor/the-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/lake-study-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/?lang=fr TLW_L1_BatchawanaLakeNorth_WaterChemistry_1982-2006_EN-FR.csvCSV https://data-donnees.ec.gc.ca/data/substances/monitor/the-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/lake-study-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/TLW_L1_BatchawanaLakeNorth_WaterChemistry_1982-2006_EN-FR.csv TLW_L2_BatchawanaLakeSouth_WaterChemistry_1982-2006_EN-FR.csvCSV https://data-donnees.ec.gc.ca/data/substances/monitor/the-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/lake-study-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/TLW_L2_BatchawanaLakeSouth_WaterChemistry_1982-2006_EN-FR.csv TLW_L3_WishartLake_WaterChemistry_1982-2006_EN-FR.csvCSV https://data-donnees.ec.gc.ca/data/substances/monitor/the-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/lake-study-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/TLW_L3_WishartLake_WaterChemistry_1982-2006_EN-FR.csv TLW_L4_LittleTurkeyLake_WaterChemistry_1982-2006_EN-FR.csvCSV https://data-donnees.ec.gc.ca/data/substances/monitor/the-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/lake-study-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/TLW_L4_LittleTurkeyLake_WaterChemistry_1982-2006_EN-FR.csv TLW_L5_TurkeyLake_WaterChemistry_1980-2006_EN-FR.csvCSV https://data-donnees.ec.gc.ca/data/substances/monitor/the-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/lake-study-turkey-lakes-watershed-study/TLW_L5_TurkeyLake_WaterChemistry_1980-2006_EN-FR.csv

The Turkey Lakes Watershed (TLW) is 1 of 5 hydrologically "calibrated" basins in eastern Canada that were originally devoted to process-oriented research into "acid rain" effects. They were selected to cover a wide range of climatic and hydrological conditions, deposition magnitudes, and terrain characteristics.

Batchawana Lake is the headwater (highest elevation) lake in the TLW. It has two distinct basins, north and south (L1 and L2). Norberg Creek flows out of Batchawana Lake South and traverses a large change in elevation (497-388 meters above mean sea level) prior to entering Wishart Lake (L3). Norberg Creek then continues through Little Turkey Lake (L4) and Turkey Lake (L5) and finally discharges into the Batchawana River and ultimately Lake Superior.

The data associated to this page are separated into archival data from 1980 to 2006, and then current data from 2006 to current.

Supplemental Information

The lakes range from 5.9 hectares (Batchawana North), 5.8 hectares (Batchawana South), 19.2 hectares (Wishart), 19.2 hectares (Little Turkey), to 52 hectares (Turkey) in area, and from 4.5 m (Wishart), 10.9 m (Batchawana South), 11.3 m, (Batchawana North), 13 m (Little Turkey) to 37 m (Turkey) in depth. Stations for monitoring chemical and physical characteristics are situated at the deepest point in each lake.

The coordinates of each lake are:

L1 - 47°04'00.6"N, 84°23'36.4"W

L2 - 47°03'50.7"N, 84°23'30.0"W

L3 - 47°03'01.2"N, 84°24'00.3"W

L4 - 47°02'35.3"N, 84°24'28.8"W

L5 - 47°02'55.9"N, 84°25'21.2"W

The lakes are considered "dimictic" (i.e. experiencing complete mixing of the water column in spring and autumn), although spring mixing is sometimes incomplete. Thermal stratification develops in Batchawana, Little Turkey and Turkey Lakes during summer and winter each year. Due to Wishart Lake's shallow nature, wind-induced mixing generally prevents thermal stratification. The sediments and undisturbed bottom waters of the lakes exert a dissolved oxygen (DO) demand resulting in reduced bottom water DO during periods of thermal stratification and even anoxia in the case of Batchawana and Little Turkey Lakes.

There is a gradient in the pH and major element chemistry of the lakes. Thin soils devoid of calcium carbonate dominate higher elevations in the TLW while lower elevations have thicker soils with a small amount of calcium carbonate. As a result, waters draining into and out of Batchawana Lake have calcium and alkalinity concentrations that are approximately half those observed in Turkey Lake. Alkalinity is a measure of a lake's ability to neutralize acid. Hence Batchawana Lake is more sensitive to the effects of acid rain than Turkey Lake. In contrast to calcium and alkalinity, sulphate concentrations (an indicator of acid rain input) are almost equal in Batchawana Lake and Turkey Lake.

Lake water phosphorus concentrations are low (6-8 mg/L), and as is the case with most lakes, phosphorus availability limits algal growth in the TLW. Nitrogen varies irregularly between lakes, but concentrations (particularly nitrate) exhibit a pronounced annual cycle. The seasonal pattern observed for nitrate indicates that nitrogen-based acidification is more important in the TLW than in any of the other sites in eastern Canada (Lac Laflamme, Plastic, ELA and Kejimkujik).

The Climate Change and Air Pollution (CCAP) program was established in 2016 to identify the severity and extent of adverse impacts of current and future air emissions on aquatic ecosystems to support regulatory actions and policy development. The program includes a number of components, including identifying, monitoring and defining air quality and greenhouse gas (GHG) concerns; improving our understanding of the short- and long-term effects of atmospheric pollutants on the environment; developing a plan to combat climate change; and monitoring and reducing both domestic and transboundary emissions of GHGs. The program is also responsible for identifying and studying emerging issues including multipollutant impacts, major urban sources, and effects of increasing heat on air pollutant formation, among others.

On-going cooperation and support with the Provinces and Territories, international governments and organizations and academia are vital to deliver these priorities to Canadians.

Data and Resources

Geographic Information

Spatial Feature

Geographic Region Name:

Ontario
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